The generation Tom Brokaw gormlessly glorified as the Greatest. In fact, it was the greediest, from having too many kids with no regard for them or the planet, to ensuring their own golden years would glow with a light provided by their children's and grandchildren's rising taxes and diminishing paychecks.
Indeed, looked at rationally, it was the so-called Greatest Generation that has made us all A Nation of Serfs.
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If humanity is to have a recognizable future, it cannot be by prolonging the past or the present. The whole of Tibet will be destroyed. At the far end of the court several people sat on chairs behind a table, clearly in charge of the meeting as a sort of "tribunal" whose powers we were yet to know. Hence, the human past is dotted by periods of regression, followed by revolutionary accelerations that sweep all before them. The most common practice is to throw the condemned prisoner into a river in a leather wrapper, which will sink in about five minutes. Yet, looking forward, he concluded, the new century and millennium offered even greater dangers. Nicolay: "This alleged quotation from Mr.
About Bryce Webster. Bryce Webster. In , the average per capita disposal income of urban residents was 33, yuan, and that of rural residents was 11, yuan. Great efforts have been made to complete housing projects for low-income farmers and herdsmen, renovation and reinforcement of dilapidated houses, improvement of rural living conditions, resettlement of impoverished people from places of harsh natural conditions, affordable housing projects, and the transformation of shanty towns, to ensure that all rural and urban people in Tibet have safe and comfortable homes.
Energy supply infrastructure has been improved.
Central heating networks have been completed and put into operation in nine counties in Lhasa, Naqu, Ngari and Nyingchi, enabling more and more people to have access to heating system in winter. Optical cables and broadband networks have been connected to every township. The broadband access rate of administrative villages has reached 85 percent, with full mobile phone signal coverage.
Modern consumer durables are growing in popularity. Refrigerators, TVs, washing machines, computers, mobile phones and cars have become commonplace.
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Local radio, television, telecommunications and internet as modern communication tools are developing at the same pace as the rest of China and the wider world, and becoming an important part of daily life. Urbanization is also progressing. By , the urbanization rate of the permanent resident population had reached 31 percent.
An urban system has taken shape centered on Lhasa, with prefectures as pivots and a network of counties, border towns and tourist towns. Before democratic reform, due to a combination of factors such as a backward economy, high infant mortality, poor medical conditions, and a high proportion of Buddhist monks and nuns, the growth of Tibetan population had stagnated for a long time. Over the past 60 years, the population has grown from 1. The life expectancy of the people in Tibet increased from There was little access to cultural life for serfs in old Tibet.
Cultural centers and cinemas have been set up in Lhasa and other cities. There are song and dance ensembles, Tibetan opera troupes, and drama troupes at the autonomous region level; folk art troupes at the prefecture level, 75 art troupes at the county level, and 2, amateur art groups at the township level. They perform in rural and pastoral areas and bring to remote villages the best of socialist culture. Cultural products are flourishing. Some performing art works such as the outdoor live stage show Princess Wencheng, and the musicals Happiness on the Way, and Searching for Shambala have generated both social benefit and profits, and become well-known calling cards of Tibetan tourism.
get link By the end of , the radio and television network coverage rates in Tibet had reached Currently, almost all cities prefectures have public libraries. Counties have comprehensive cultural centers, towns have cultural service centers, and administrative villages have cultural centers, libraries and projector rooms. The annual output of the cultural industry in Tibet totals 4.
There are cultural industry demonstration centers parks at national, regional, municipal prefectural and county levels. The Tibetan language is protected by the law and develops smoothly. It is used extensively in political life. In the judicial process, Tibetan is applied in hearing cases involving Tibetan litigants and in releasing legal instruments. Information technology has been applied to the Tibetan language, with a computer coding system using Tibetan characters that has reached national and international standards.
They have provided a legal basis for the protection of ethnic culture in Tibet. Significant progress has been made in protecting cultural relics. The state and Tibet Autonomous Region have invested over 5 billion yuan in the renovation of 55 sites under state protection and sites under regional protection. Taking the old town of Lhasa as an example, in transforming Barkhor Street, which dates back more than 1, years, the government of Lhasa gave full consideration to the protection and inheritance of ethnic culture by highlighting and displaying fine Tibetan cultural elements, listening to the suggestions and advice of local residents, monks and craftsmen, and organizing tours of the street for representatives of the public to offer opinions.
All these efforts helped to protect the culture of the old town of Lhasa. There are 89 items on the state level intangible heritage list and 96 state level Trustees. There are items on the regional level intangible heritage list, and regional level Trustees. Four sites including the Potala Palace are designated as state key units for the protection of ancient books and ancient books are listed as national rare ancient books. As Tibet becomes more open, its culture is going global.
Tibet has also sent a variety of art troupes to over countries and regions to give performances, put on exhibitions, and carry out academic exchanges.
In old Tibet, education was largely the preserve of the privileged aristocracy. The serfs who made up 95 percent of the population were not entitled to education, resulting in an illiteracy rate surpassing 95 percent among young people. Primary schools and middle schools were set up in all prefectures and counties. Primary schools were established in most townships and some villages. In , Lhasa Normal School opened officially. A modern and comprehensive education system is now in place in Tibet, including pre-school education, basic education, vocational technical education, higher education, continual education, and special education.
All people in Tibet have a right to education that is fully protected. After democratic reform, the Constitution, Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy and Law on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language and local regulations made specific requirements on the teaching, use and development of ethnic languages to establish a proper bilingual teaching system. At present, bilingual teaching has been introduced in some urban primary schools and all those in agricultural and pastoral areas, with main courses taught in Tibetan.
Middle school courses are taught in both Tibetan and standard Chinese. By , Tibet had 1, kindergartens, primary schools, middle schools and seven institutions of higher learning.
The number of graduates from these schools has increased from 18, in to over , today. Remarkable success has been achieved in running Tibetan classes in the rest of the country. Twenty-one provinces and cities are running such classes schools. Over 36, Tibetan students of such classes have won credentials above the level of secondary technical school and got back to work in Tibet. In , the state began to adopt the Three Guarantees policy — providing food, accommodation and school expenses — for children of farmers and herdsmen, as well as children from impoverished urban families.
The standard has been raised 18 times. The policy coverage has expanded and the benefits increased. From , Tibet has implemented the policy across the board for year compulsory education. In , the net enrollment rate in primary school was Over the past 60 years, Tibet has made steady progress in medical and health services, sharing synchronous development with the rest of the country and protecting the health rights of all people in Tibet.
The system of medical services, maternity and child care, Tibetan medicine and therapies, and prevention and control of diseases has improved. By the late s, regional epidemics presenting significant health hazards had been brought under control, and the morbidity and mortality rates of infectious and endemic diseases were in sharp decline. Solid efforts have been made to improve the medical and health infrastructure.
Hospitals at all levels, including 71 county-level hospitals, have been renovated and expanded. A medical service system covering regional, municipal prefectural , county and town levels is in place. In rural and pastoral areas farmers and herdsmen enjoy special preferential policies concerning medical services. This is a full-fledged policy which relies mostly on government input, supplemented by personal payment, social pooling for severe diseases and provision of medical aid. The central government attaches special importance to medical services in Tibet and send to Tibet medical workers selected from renowned hospitals across the nation.
Tibetan medicine and therapies are being effectively conserved, and passed down from generation to generation. Hospitals providing Tibetan medicine have been set up in all cities prefectures and counties, and therapeutic standards are consistently regulated and improved. Since the beginning of the 12th Five-year Plan , the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine has organized experts to collate and compile volumes of medical literature from 29 ethnic groups.
Tibet is responsible for the compilation of 20 of these on Tibetan medicine and therapies. It is also responsible for examining 10 practical medical techniques.